Effects of compression ratio on the performance and emission levels of a CI engine fueled with safflower oil methyl ester through an engine simulation approach

DOĞAN B., Ghanati S. G., Yes ßilyurt M. K., Yaman H.

Science and Technology for Energy Transition (STET), vol.79, 2024 (Scopus) identifier


In recent years, the research community has shown significant interest in the potential of biodiesel as a renewable alternative to conventional fossil-based fuels. Nevertheless, the experimental investigation of the effects of diverse biodiesel formulations on internal combustion engines demands a significant investment of time and financial resources. Consequently, the numerical alternative methodologies are advocated as a viable substitute for practical experiments. Numerical simulations offer the opportunity for a meticulous examination of the characteristics of internal combustion engines under diverse operational conditions and various biodiesel blends, thereby optimizing efficiency and cost-effectiveness. This study focused on the simulation of performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil methyl ester (SOME) and traditional diesel fuel using AVL simulation software. Furthermore, the simulation results were compared with a laboratory study carried out under identical conditions. The simulated engine underwent testing across various compression ratios (CRs) (ranging from 12:1 to 18:1) and engine loads (from 25% to full load) while sustaining a consistent speed of 1500 rpm. The simulation findings revealed that the engine exhibited its highest BSFC as 0.495 kg/kWh with SOME fuel, at a CR of 12:1, modestly lower than the corresponding experimental observation of 0.520 kg/kWh. Concurrently, the lowest value of BSFC, recorded as 0.267 kg/kWh with diesel fuel and a CR of 18:1, demonstrated a marginal deviation from the experimental result of 0.281 kg/kWh. Additionally, SOME fuel usage was correlated with diminished CO and HC emissions. The experimental findings indicated the lowest value of CO and HC emissions, as 0.14% and 21.7 ppm, respectively, with SOME fuel at a CR of 18:1, marginally below the simulation-derived values of 0.13% and 20.8 ppm. Conversely, diesel fuel at a CR of 12:1 exhibited maximal CO and HC emissions, registering 0.38% and 199.5 ppm, respectively, in the experimental study. In comparison, the simulation values were slightly lower at 0.36% and 194.1 ppm. Moreover, the experimental investigation identified SOME fuel as yielding the highest CO2 emission, reaching a peak of 11.9% under a CR of 18:1, while the simulation showed a slightly lower value of 11.2%. In contrast, diesel fuel at a CR of 12:1 resulted in the lowest CO2 emission at 3.85% in the experiment, with the simulation reporting a slightly reduced value of 3.77%. Regarding NOx emissions, the experiment recorded the peak at 1687 ppm with SOME fuel and a CR of 18:1, slightly surpassing the simulation’s value of 1643 ppm. Conversely, the experimental data indicated the lowest NOx emission as 103 ppm with diesel fuel and a CR of 12:1, with the simulation suggesting a slightly lower value of 98.2 ppm under identical conditions. The simulation results demonstrated favorable concordance with experimental findings, notably strengthening with an increase in CR.