Identification of Phenolic Compounds by LC-MS/MS and Evaluation of Bioactive Properties of Two Edible Halophytes: Limonium effusum and L. sinuatum


BAYSAL İ., EKİZOĞLU M., Ertas A., Temiz B., Agalar H. G. , Yabanoglu-Ciftci S., ...More

MOLECULES, vol.26, no.13, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/molecules26134040
  • Title of Journal : MOLECULES
  • Keywords: Limonium effusum, Limonium sinuatum, Plumbaginaceae, phenolics, LC-MS, MS, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticholinesterase, antityrosinase, pancreatic lipase, enzyme inhibition, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES, INHIBITORY-ACTIVITY, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES, PANCREATIC LIPASE, TYROSINASE, EXTRACTS, PROFILE, KUNTZE, PLANTS, ROOT

Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate the phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities of the methanol extracts and their fractions of two edible halophytic Limonium species, L. effusum (LE) and L. sinuatum (LS). The total phenolic content resulted about two-fold higher in the ethyl acetate fraction of LE (522.82 +/- 5.67 mg GAE/g extract) than in that of LS (274.87 +/- 1.87 mg GAE/g extract). LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that tannic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both species (71,439.56 +/- 3643.3 mu g/g extract in LE and 105,453.5 +/- 5328.1 mu g/g extract in LS), whereas hyperoside was the most abundant flavonoid (14,006.90 +/- 686.1 mu g/g extract in LE and 1708.51 +/- 83.6 mu g/g extract in LS). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and TAC assays, and the stronger antioxidant activity in ethyl acetate fractions was highlighted. Both species were more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram negatives and showed considerable growth inhibitions against tested fungi. Interestingly, selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was observed with LE and LS. Particularly, the water fraction of LS strongly inhibited AChE (IC50 = 0.199 +/- 0.009 mu g/mL). The ethyl acetate fractions of LE and LS, as well as the n-hexane fraction of LE, exhibited significant antityrosinase activity (IC50 = 245.56 +/- 3.6, 295.18 +/- 10.57 and 148.27 +/- 3.33 mu g/mL, respectively). The ethyl acetate fraction and methanol extract of LS also significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 83.76 +/- 4.19 and 162.2 +/- 7.29 mu g/mL, respectively). Taken together, these findings warrant further investigations to assess the potential of LE and LS as a bioactive source that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.