The food needs for increasing population, climatic changes, urbanization and industrialization, along with the destruction of forests, are the main challenges of modern life. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate plant genetic resources in order to cope with these problems. Therefore, in this study, a set of ninety-one walnut (Juglans regia L.) accessions from Central Anatolia region, composed of seventy-four accessions and eight commercial cultivars from Turkey, and nine international reference cultivars, was analyzed using 45 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers to reveal the genetic diversity. SSR analysis identified 390 alleles for 91 accessions. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 alleles with a mean value of 9 alleles per locus. Genetic dissimilarity coefficients ranged from 0.03 to 0.68. The highest number of alleles was obtained from CUJRA212 locus (Na = 19). The values of polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.42 (JRHR222528) to 0.86 (CUJRA212) with a mean PIC value of 0.68. Genetic distances were estimated according to the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average), Principal Coordinates (PCoA), and the Structure-based clustering. The UPGMA and Structure clustering of the accessions depicted five major clusters supporting the PCoA results. The dendrogram revealed the similarities and dissimilarities among the accessions by identifying five major clusters. Based on this study, SSR analyses indicate that Yozgat province has an important genetic diversity pool and rich genetic variance of walnuts.