Significance of neotectonic and paleoclimatic Late Pleistocene-Holocene travertine and origins: Balkayasi, Avanos-Nevsehir, Central Anatolia/Turkey


Temiz U. , Kocak I., Öksüz N. , Akbay S.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, vol.110, no.6, pp.2157-2177, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 110 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00531-021-02065-1
  • Title of Journal : INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES
  • Page Numbers: pp.2157-2177
  • Keywords: Travertine, U-series, Isotope, Salanda Fault Zone, Geochemistry, Paleoclimate, RARE-EARTH-ELEMENTS, FISSURE-RIDGE TRAVERTINES, WESTERN ANATOLIA, TRACE-ELEMENTS, TURKEY, GEOCHEMISTRY, EVOLUTION, BASIN, DEPOSITS, SEDIMENTS

Abstract

In this study, the correlation of the Balkayasi travertine formations with the Salanda Fault Zone (SFZ) located within the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP) was investigated. Additionally, source and paleoclimatic significance were researched with age dates for the travertine formations obtained with the U-series dating method, stable isotope data, and major oxide, trace, and rare earth element (REE) analyses. The ages of the travertines outcropping in the study area were determined to vary from 9 to 55 ka according to U-series age analysis data. In the stress analysis taking into account the trending's of Balkayasi travertines deposited in SFZ, it was found that the main compression and extension directions in the region were NNW-SSE and ENE-WSW, respectively. The delta C-13(PDB) values varied from 11.36 to 13.16 and delta O-18(PDB) values were from - 10.41 to - 8.66. n-ary sumation REE were in the interval 1.08-22.97 ppm. Negative Eu and Ce anomalies were determined. Travertine formations outcropping in the region were classified according to morphology as fissure ridge, range front, and eroded sheet travertines. Age dates obtained from the travertines reveal they formed in MIS 3 (marine isotope layer) representing very cold (dry) periods and MIS2 and the initial period of MIS 1. The extensional direction is consistent with the Tuz Golu Fault Zone (TGFZ), one of the important structures in the region. Linked to the age data from the travertine formations, the strike-slip transition on the SFZ is interpreted to have extended to the Late Pleistocene. In conclusion, according to stable isotope data and geochemical data, the Balkayasi travertines have epigenic character; however, they were affected by the hypogenic environment, precipitated in fresh water, and were fed by high pH and hydrothermal waters.