Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L. - syn. X. sibiricum) belonging to the Asteraceae family is a very common weed in many parts of the world. Cocklebur is an annual and has brown, hard, woody fruits, 1.0-3.5 cm long, with hooked spines. Each fruit of the plants contains two seeds. The plant has some medicinal properties and has been used in traditional medicine. Also, the researches showed that X. strumarium has some biological properties such as anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antifungal etc. Its seed has high oil content. According to results of studies on biodiesel properties of the oil; X. strumarium is a promising species as renewable resource for biodiesel production.