Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) is tetraploid wheat (AABB); it is the main source of semolina and other pasta products. Grain yield in wheat is quantitatively inherited and influenced by the environment. The genetic map construction constitutes the essential step in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to complex traits, such as grain yield. The study aimed to construct a genetic linkage map of two parents that are widely grown durum cultivars (Lahn and Chaml) in the Mediterranean basin, which is characterized by varying climate changes. The genetic linkage map of Lahn/Chaml population consisted of 112 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and was used to determine QTLs linked to the grain yield in 11 contrasting environments (favorable, cold, dry, and hot). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers were used to construct an anchor map, which was later enriched with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The map was constructed with 247 SSRs and enriched with 1425 SNPs. The map covered 6122.22 cM. One hundred and twenty-six QTLs were detected on different chromosomes. Chromosomes 2A and 4B harbored the most significant grain yield QTLs. Furthermore, by comparison with several wheat mapping populations, all the A and B chromosomes of Lahn/Cham 1 QTLs contributed to grain yield. The results showed that the detected QTLs can be used as a potential candidate for marker-assisted selection in durum breeding programs.