Background: Sepsis is a serious clinical condition characterized by damage to the immune system as a result of an uncontrolled response to infection. Septic patients show complications such as fever, cardiovascular shock, and/or systemic organ failure. Acute organ failure formed in sepsis mostly affects the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In sepsis, responses including pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes in addition to the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signals leading to the release of inflammatory mediators have been suggested to be fundamental pathways in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Purpose: In this context, unregulated levels of sepsis-associated inflammatory mediators may increase the risk of mortality. In sepsis, infection-induced pathogens lead to a systemic inflammatory response. These systemic responses may contribute to septic shock and organ dysfunction. In the unfavorable clinical course of sepsis, an uncontrolled inflammatory response is observed. Accordingly, the mechanism of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines in sepsis might increase. Neurotransmitters and gene regulators affect inflammatory mediators and control the inflammatory response. In this review, we aimed to show the new therapeutic targets in sepsis treatment with current studies. New clinical implications targeting inflammatory mediators in high mortality affected by the uncontrolled inflammatory response in sepsis can contribute to the understanding of the symptoms.