APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY REVIEWS, vol.46, no.1, pp.38-66, 2011 (SCI-Expanded)
Determination of the trace elements in a variety of environmental samples is of great importance. Most elements, including iron, calcium, and selenium, are crucial for the regulation of human mechanisms, and many others, like lead and cadmium, are toxic even at trace levels. Some elements, like selenium, have a narrow margin of safety. Hence, determination of elements at trace levels is crucial in any matrix related to humans. Trace element determination requires sufficiently sensitive procedures to monitor trace levels. This review aims to highlight not only the development in instrumentation for ultratrace element determination in variety of matrices but the application of developed techniques. Advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are also discussed.