The Happiness, Hardiness, and Humor Styles of Students with a Bachelor’s Degree in Sport Sciences


BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, vol.8, no.9(82), pp.2-21, 2018 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 9(82)
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/bs8090082
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2-21
  • Keywords: happiness, humor, positive psychology, hardiness, resilience, sports, wellbeing, STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS, GENDER-DIFFERENCES, PERSONALITY, TESTOSTERONE, PSYCHOLOGY, RESILIENCE, HEALTH
  • Yozgat Bozok University Affiliated: Yes


Happiness, psychological hardiness, and humor (the 3Hs) are useful ways of assessing resilience to stress in positive psychology. The literature analyzing their confluence regarding sports is scarce. This study aims to analyze the participants' 3H levels and the relationships between those levels and specific variables. The Psychological Hardiness Scale (Psikolojik Dayaniklilik Olcegi, PDO), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form (OHQ-SF), and the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) were used. Students in pedagogical formation training during the 2016-2017 fall semester have participated in the study (N = 211). Significant differences were found regarding the levels of psychological hardiness in relation to gender, type of sport, and years of participation, and, in humor types regarding the variables of gender, age, residence and perceived income. There were significant differences in all instruments regarding gender. Negative relationships were found between the aggressive humor and challenge and self-commitment sub-dimensions of PDO, while the relationships were positive between self-enhancing humor and PDO and OHQ-SF, and between affiliative humor style and PDO and OHQ-SF. This study enhances the positive socio-psychological account in the literature by incorporating the issues of 3H and provides an understanding of particularities that may help improve the practice of relevant experts and individuals.