The present study is aimed at assessing the sleep quality of pediatric surgeons that work at night shifts or that are on-call on certain days of the week and investigate the effects of their sleep quality on burnout. A total of 181 participants were enrolled: the study group included 91 pediatric surgeons that work night shifts or that are on-call on certain days of the week while the control group included 90 physicians from physicians who do not work night shifts. The participants, who were contacted via the Internet, were asked to fill in a personal information form including questions about their professions, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). There were no statistically significant differences between the study and control groups regarding age and working time. The total scores of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and burnout of the MBI and the PSQI were significantly higher in the study group. Considering all participants, there was a negative correlation between burnout and age and years worked and a positive correlation between the number of physician working in the participant's clinic and PSQI total scores. There was a positive correlation between the PSQI total scores and the burnout levels of pediatric surgeons. Interventions to improve sleep quality might reduce burnout levels and contribute positively to work efficiency and quality of life.