Centaurea aksoyi Hamzaoglu & Budak (Asteraceae: Cardueae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Turkey (central Anatolia, Yozgat province). Diagnostic characters, descriptions and taxonomic comments are given. The characteristics of the new species are compared to the related species Centaurea pseudokotschyi Wagenitz (sect. Pseudoseridia Wagenitz) and Centaurea paphlagonica (Bornm.) Wagenitz (sect. Plumosipappus Wagenitz). The geographical distribution of the new and related species are given, and it is considered as Critically Endangered based on the IUCN criteria.