Chromosomal data are valuable and very useful for revealing evolution and speciation processes. Due to its wide distribution throughout the world, morphological differences, and chromosomal alterations, Erodium L'Her. is an important genus for investigating the relationship between chromosomal alterations and karyotype evolution. In the present study, the chromosome records of 15 taxa are provided; three are reported here for the first time (E. birandianum, E. gaillardotii, and E. hendrikii), seven present new chromosome numbers, and five are in agreement with previous reports. Karyotype evolution is summarized in the light of this data, and four different genomes are presented in the genus. Millions of years ago the ancestral karyotype was x = 9 in Asia (Genome I). Then, karyotypes x = 8 (Genome II) and x 10 (Genome III) were shaped through dysploidy in Anatolia and Asia. They were distributed in the Mediterranean Basin through the Anatolian land bridge and in North and South America via the Bering land bridge and the North Atlantic land bridge. Finally, a high proportion of polyploidization was observed in secondary centers, especially the Mediterranean Basin and Australia (Genome IV).