BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.23, no.12, pp.1402-1411, 2013 (SCI-Expanded)
This study investigated the effect of strong magnetic fields as insecticidal activity on Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae and eggs at different stages of development and their preference by the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Eggs ranging in age from 24-h to 48-h and 72-h-old and larvae (1 to 2 days) were exposed to 1.4 Tesla (T) magnetic fields from a DC power supply at 50 Hz for different time periods (3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h). Twelve hours of exposure at 1.4 T was toxic to 24-h-old eggs of E. kuehniella. The 72-h-old host eggs treated with 1.4 T for 6-72 h were not significantly preferred by T. embryophagum. The magnetic field was toxic to 24-h-old eggs of E. kuehniella exposed to 1.4 T for 12. The treatment of magnetic fields on the 72-h-old host egg with 1.4 T at 6-72 h was not significantly preferred by T. embryophagum. Magnetization of 24-h-old eggs of E. kuehniella for 3 h could be effectively used with T. embryophagum as sterilised host eggs. These eggs were markedly preferred by T. embryophagum. The LT50 and LT99 values of magnetic fields at different egg stages of E. kuehniella, and larvae were measured. A level of 1.4 T at 72 h completely prevented the development of the larvae. There was no significant effect on larval survival at 1.4 T at 48 and 72 h. Increasing magnetic fields exposure times for eggs that were 24-h, 48-h and 72-h-old prevented larval emergence and increased their mortality rate. Consequently, magnetic fields could be used in controlling stored-product pest eggs and larvae of E. kuehniella.