Genetic and epigenetic effects in sex determination


Gunes S. O. , Mahmutoglu A. , Agarwal A.

BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH PART C-EMBRYO TODAY-REVIEWS, vol.108, no.4, pp.321-336, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 108 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/bdrc.21146
  • Title of Journal : BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH PART C-EMBRYO TODAY-REVIEWS
  • Page Numbers: pp.321-336
  • Keywords: sex determination, SRY, SOXE, NR5A1, GATA4, WT1, epigenetics, STEROIDOGENIC FACTOR-I, MOBILITY-GROUP-BOX, REGULATORY REGION UPSTREAM, 46,XX TESTICULAR DISORDER, NEURAL CREST DEVELOPMENT, PURE GONADAL-DYSGENESIS, WILMS-TUMOR 1, SRY GENE, HMG BOX, MISSENSE MUTATION

Abstract

Sex determination is a complex and dynamic process with multiple genetic and environmental causes, in which germ and somatic cells receive various sex-specific features. During the fifth week of fetal life, the bipotential embryonic gonad starts to develop in humans. In the bipotential gonadal tissue, certain cell groups start to differentiate to form the ovaries or testes. Despite considerable efforts and advances in identifying the mechanisms playing a role in sex determination and differentiation, the underlying mechanisms of the exact functions of many genes, gene-gene interactions, and epigenetic modifications that are involved in different stages of this cascade are not completely understood. This review aims at discussing current data on the genetic effects via genes and epigenetic mechanisms that affect the regulation of sex determination. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:321-336, 2016. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.