CUTANEOUS AND OCULAR TOXICOLOGY, vol.37, no.2, pp.112-120, 2018 (SCI-Expanded)
Purpose: To investigate the possible protective effects of melatonin and memantine (MMT) against 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP)-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human RPE (ARPE-19) cells in vitro.Materials and methods: The ARPE-19 cells were divided into seven groups. Oxidative stress was triggered by incubating the ARPE-19 cells with 30M of 2-EP for 24h. Then, 200M of melatonin was administered over three days and 20M of MMT over six hours prior to the experiment. The effects of melatonin and MMT on the intracellular calcium release mechanism, reactive oxygen species production, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor levels were measured.Results: Melatonin and MMT were found to significantly decrease apoptosis levels. The intracellular calcium release was regulated by both melatonin and MMT. Further, melatonin and MMT significantly decreased both caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, as well as pro-caspase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression, in ARPE-19 cells. Moreover, melatonin significantly increased the protective effect of MMT. The combination of melatonin and MMT significantly decreased 2-EP-induced oxidative toxicity and apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization levels.Conclusions: These notable findings are the first to demonstrate the synergistic protective effects of melatonin and MMT against 2-EP-induced oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells.