Using tea bag filter as a sufficient cellulosic membrane for removal of Safranin-O dye from water: adsorption and density functional theory studies

Al-Kinani E. M., Hadi S. A., Hamud W. M., Al-Karawi A. J. M., Ahmed R. K., Kansiz S., ...More

Desalination and Water Treatment, vol.287, pp.233-244, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 287
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.5004/dwt.2023.29365
  • Journal Name: Desalination and Water Treatment
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.233-244
  • Keywords: Adsorption studies, Cellulosic membrane, Safranin-O dye, Tea bag filter, Water treatment
  • Yozgat Bozok University Affiliated: Yes


Safranin-O dye is recognised as a harmful material for both of human health and the environment. Due to that, proposing a simple, efficient, and low-cost method for the purification of water from Safranin-O dye was our main goal. Tea bag filter as a cellulosic membrane was tested as an adsorbent for the removal of Safranin-O from water by applying the batch equilibrium method at pH = 11.0. The adsorption studies were carried out based on contact time, adsorbent mass, adsorbate concentration, and pH (pHPZC of the adsorbent was also determined). These studies revealed in general that tea bag filter is good candidate as a sufficient membrane for removal of Safranin-O dye from water at pH = 11.0 due to its uptake capacity (%), time of adsorption (very short time with equilibrium time ~90–120 s), and regeneration efficiency (around 95%, indicating the reversibility of sorption process without loss of binding efficiency). The isothermal behavior and the adsorption kinetics of Safranin-O dye on the surface of tea bag filter with respect to the temperature, and the initial mass of tea bag filter were also investigated. The obtained results revealed that the experimental data of the adsorption showed good correlation with both of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations (although the correlation of data with Langmuir isotherm equation is more pronounced with respect to their R2 values), and the adsorption process is best explained by the pseudo-second-order model. The molecular electrostatic potential maps for both of cellulose and Safranin-O based on density functional theory calculations was investigated in order to determine the charge-dependent properties and the probable interaction between the adsorbent (cellulose) and the adsorbate (Safranin-O). The results indicate that the interaction is mainly due to the hydrogen bonding between the two molecules.