Viruses, vol.15, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a significant pathogenic virus with up to 100% morbidity and 91% mortality rates, especially in unvaccinated puppies. The emergence of new strains, interspecies transmission, and vaccine effectiveness can be enabled by just a few base changes in the CPV genome. Therefore, to cope with CPV disease, it is important to identify the viral agent and regularly monitor vaccine effectiveness against new strains. The present study has investigated CPV’s genetic profile in Turkey by collecting 80 samples from dogs in Turkey between 2020 and 2022. These samples and all sequences previously studied for CPV in Turkey were analyzed for whole-genome sequences, nationwide strain distribution over the two years, and the central Turkey prevalence rate. Next-generation sequencing was used for the genome study, Sanger sequencing for strain detection, and PCR for the prevalence analyses. The CPV-2 variants circulating in Turkey form their own cluster while being closely related to Egypt variants. Substantial amino acid changes were detected in antigenically important regions of the VP2 gene. Moreover, CPV-2b has become the most frequent genotype in this region, while the incidence of CPV-2c is predicted to increase gradually over the coming years. The prevalence of CPV in central Turkey was 86.27%. This study thus provides powerful insights to further our understanding of CPV’s genetic profile in Turkey and suggests that up-to-date vaccination efficacy studies are urgently needed.