Chromosomal data can provide very valuable information about karyotypic phylogeny and speciation. This is the first study on karyotype phylogeny and polyploidy variations of the genus Paronychia. In this context, the results are these: (1) in 14 taxa, the first report on chromosomes numbers; (2) in 2 taxa, equal chromosome numbers as in the previous report; (3) in all taxa, the first report of detailed karyotype analyses; (4) karyotype asymmetry data and generally symmetrical karyotypes; (5) karyotypic variations by mechanisms of dysploidy and polyploidy; and (6) phylogenetic relationships in Paronychia. The data indicate that Anatolia is an important area for the distribution of Paronychia. In light of all data, karyotype evolution is briefly summarized. The ancestral karyotype was x = 9 (millions of years ago). The karyotypes (x = 8 and x = 7) were then shaped by dysploidy. The rate of polyploidization then significantly increased in the genus. However, data should be supported by molecular analysis. In addition, the chromosome numbers of 8 species of Turkish Paronychia is still unknown. The determination of the karyological data of all species is very important to understand karyotype evolution and chromosomal phylogeny in Paronychia.