Optimization Based on Toughness and Splitting Tensile Strength of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Incorporating Silica Fume Using Response Surface Method

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Köksal F., Beycioğlu A., Dobiszewska M.

MATERIALS, vol.15, no.6218, pp.1-14, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 6218
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ma15186218
  • Journal Name: MATERIALS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-14
  • Keywords: steel fiber concrete, toughness, optimization, response surface method
  • Yozgat Bozok University Affiliated: Yes


The greatest weakness of concrete as a construction material is its brittleness and low fracture energy absorption capacity until failure occurs. In order to improve concrete strength and durability, silica fume SF is introduced into the mixture, which at the same time leads to an increase in the brittleness of concrete. To improve the ductility and toughness of concrete, short steel fibers have been incorporated into concrete. Steel fibers and silica fume are jointly preferred for concrete design in order to obtain concrete with high strength and ductility. It is well-known that silica fume content and fiber properties, such as aspect ratio and volume ratio, directly affect the properties of SFRCs. The mixture design of steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) with SF addition is a very important issue in terms of economy and performance. In this study, an experimental design was used to study the toughness and splitting tensile strength of SFRC with the response surface method (RSM). The models established by the RSM were used to optimize the design of SFRC in terms of the usage of optimal silica fume content, and optimal steel fiber volume and aspect ratio. Optimum silica fume content and fiber volume ratio values were determined using the D-optimal design method so that the steel fiber volume ratio was at the minimum and the bending toughness and splitting tensile strength were at the maximum. The amount of silica fume used as a cement replacement, aspect ratio, and volume fraction of steel fiber were chosen as independent variables in the experiment. Experimentally obtained mechanical properties of SFRC such as compression, bending, splitting, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and the toughness index were the dependent variables. A good correlation was observed between the dependent and independent variables included in the model. As a result of the optimization, optimum steel fiber volume was determined as 0.70% and silica fume content was determined as 15% for both aspect ratios.