© 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.Mitochondria play a critical role in regulating cellular functions, such as redox signaling, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis. Also, mitochondria are crucial for neurogenesis and neuronal functions. Melatonin is an indole analog hormone, which is generally produced by the pineal gland. It plays a vital role in circadian rhythm and act as a powerful antioxidant by scavenging free radicals, immunomodulators, and anticancer agents. Schizophrenia and mood disorders are the two major psychiatric disorders. Disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms are well-known symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorders (bipolar disorder, major depression). Since melatonin has a regulator effect on circadian rhythm and sleep quality, it has a close interaction with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Herein, we aimed to summarize the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial activity in schizophrenia and mood disorders.