In this study, 52 landraces accessions belonging to the species of Lathyrus sativus and Lathyrus clymenum collected from different regions of Turkey and one released variety of Lathyrus sativus were evaluated for some quality traits like seed coat color, 1000 seed weight, crude protein and neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) content. Among the investigated landraces, high variation was determined for all the investigated traits, which was attributed to both genetic as well as environmental factors. Protein content was as between 24.07 to 30.90% and beta-ODAP content was as 1.35 to 3.86 mg g(-1) for seed. Many landraces with low beta-ODAP content (< 2.00 mg g(-1)) and high protein content seem to be promising material for Lathyrus breeding. Furthermore, many investigated landraces showed lower beta-ODAP and higher protein contents compared with the released variety. Also, the local consumption of L. sativus landraces as a food or feed was determined during the collection process.