Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection. The clinical spectrum of disease ranges from asymptomatic infection, to benign warts (primarily caused by low-risk HPV genotypes 6 and 11) to invasive malignancy. Over 70% of cervical cancer associated with the high-risk genotypes 16 and 18. According to the GLOBOCAN 2002 investigation which is held by International Agency for Research on Cancer the cervical cancer incidence in Turkey is 4.5 in 100.000. It was seen 1364 new cervix cancer case and 726 deaths due to cancer in the same year. In Turkey, cervical cancer is the 9th most common cause of cancer death in women. This review will highlight the science behind HPV vaccines, recent advances in HPV prophylactic vaccine development, the most recent clinical trial results and important issues we need to consider prior to implementation of the vaccine in Turkey.