The traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) model was used to investigate the acute phase biomarkers (APBs) in the inflammatory response of dairy cows. Fourteen Swiss Brown cows were diagnosed with TRP based on the clinical findings, ferroscopy and ultrasonography as well as positive responses to pain tests. Four of the cows were necropsied and TRP was confirmed. Additionally, 10 healthy cows were used as the control group. Blood samples were obtained from cows during the clinical stage of TRP. Mean serum haptoglobulin (Hp) (1.19 +/- 0.37 vs. 0.03 +/- 0.01 mg/mL) (P<0.05) and plasma fibrinogen (Fb) (205.1 +/- 18.1 vs. 101.1 +/- 17.6 eta g/mL) (P<0.001) concentrations of TRP group were found higher compared to control group. There was an insignificant increase in mean serum amyloid A (SAA) (165 +/- 63 vs. 67.9 +/- 34 mu g/mL) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (alpha-1 AGP) (1069 +/- 220 vs. 663 +/- 121 mu g/mL) levels (P>0.05). Mean total white blood cell (WBC) count of TRP group (10.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.6 x 10(3)/mu L) was significantly higher compared to control group (P<0.001). Moreover, neutrophil counts of the TRP group showed a tendency to increase compared to the control group, however no statistical difference was detected (P>0.05). While positive correlation was detected between WBC count and Hp concentration of TRP group (r=0.636; P=0.01); there was no correlation between WBC count and Fb concentration (r=0.395; P>0.05). There was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between groups for routine biochemical parameters. In conclusion, significant increases in Fb and Hp values were found to be related to the inflammatory response of dairy cows with TRP. The tendency of increase in the SAA and alpha-1 AGP were evaluated as nonspecific for the response. In addition, high Hp values were consistent with the correlation of high WBC counts due to the inflammatory response.