Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the results of transthoracic biopsies performed through the use of FDG PET/CT imaging with the results of transthoracic needle biopsy performed without using the FDG PET/CT imaging.Methods: The medical files of a total of 58 patients with pulmonary and mediastinal masses. A total of 20 patients, who were suspected of malignancy with the SUVmax value of over 2.5 in FDG PET/CT, underwent a biopsy process. Twelve patients with no suspicion of malignancy in accordance with CT images and with the SUVmax value below 2.5 underwent no biopsy procedure, and hence, they were excluded from the study. On the other hand, 26 patients directly went through a biopsy process with the suspicion of malignancy according to CT imaging, regardless of performing any FDG PET/CT imaging.Results: According to the biopsy results, the number of the patients diagnosed with cancer was 20 (43.5%), while the number of non-cancerous patients was 26 (56.5%). When these findings were considered, it was determined that the sensitivity of the whole TTNB (transthoracic needle biopsy) was 80.8%, and the specificity was found as 100%. The positive predictive value of the whole TTNB was 100%, while its negative predictive value was found to be 80%. The sensitivity in TTNB performed together with FDG PET/CT was 90.9%, whereas the specificity was 100%. The positive predictive value of TTNB with FDG PET/CT was 100%, while its negative predictive value was found to be 81.8%. The sensitivity in TTNB performed without the use of FDG PET/CT was 73.3%, whereas the specificity was determined as 100%.Conclusions: Performing FDG PET/CT imaging process prior to a transthoracic biopsy as well as preferring FDG PET/CT for the spot on which the biopsy will be performed during the transthoracic biopsy procedure increases the rate of receiving accurate diagnosis.