The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality traits of 1- and 2-year-old ganders and the reproduction traits of 2-year-old domestic Turkish geese in natural mating (NM) and artificial insemination (AI) conditions. The study comprised 72 two-year-old females, 12 one-year-old, and 12 two-year-old ganders. Thirty-six female geese were mated naturally (18 with 1-year-old ganders, 18 with 2-year-old ganders); the remaining thirty-six were inseminated artificially (18 with 1-year-old ganders, 18 with 2-year-old ganders). Twenty-four ganders were separated into groups (12 for NM; 12 for AI). The male:female ratio was 1:3 for NM and AI groups. Egg production, broodiness, fertility and hatching traits were determined in female geese, sperm quality traits such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm quality factor (eSQF: ejaculated semen SQF; dSQF: diluted semen SQF), sperm motility, and sperm morphological traits in ganders. The insemination method and gander's age did not affect egg production, AI geese showed significantly more broodiness than NM groups as the breeding months progresses (p < 0.05). Fertility was higher in the groups containing 2-year-old ganders than in those 1-year-old ganders, and NM groups compared to AI (p < 0.05). The insemination method significantly affected semen volume, sperm concentration, eSQF, sperm motility, total live sperm, normal sperm, macro-cephalic sperm, and dead sperm percentages in ganders (p < 0.05). Managing females in the NM system with ganders was able to partially suppress the broodiness behavior, possibly due to synchronization of pair-bond behaviors. Greater fertility was achieved with 2-years-old AI ganders, which had lower dSQF compared to 1-year-old NM ganders. This is a good indication that only SQF is not sufficient to achieve sustainable-desired fertility, and sexual experience is also an important factor.