Background Asthma is an important public health disease affecting children that may result in school absenteeism and hospitalization. This study aims to assess the validity, reliability, and diagnostic accuracy of the Turkish version of the asthma and allergy screening questionnaire. Methods This study included primary and secondary school students from grades 2 to 7 and their parents or caregivers. For validity, 40 children with asthma and 39 children with allergies diagnosed by the questionnaire were used to determine the sensitivity. The specificity was calculated by using the data of 100 children without asthma and allergies. The study was completed with the participation of 704 students and parents. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess item reliability. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess validity. Results When the cutoff point of the questionnaire was 2/3 for asthma, the sensitivity was 80.0% and 82.5% and the specificity was 56.6% and 76.8% according to the student and parent form, respectively. When the cutoff point of the questionnaire was 0/1 for allergies, the sensitivity was 74.4% and 84.6% and the specificity was 66.3% and 54.2% according to the student (SQ) and parent questionnaire (PQ), respectively. The reliability of test-retest correlation values (>= 0.68) of asthma and allergy questionnaires were found to be statistically significant. The internal consistency Cronbach's alpha values of the asthma SQ and PQ were 0.72 and 0.80, respectively. Conclusions According to the Turkish questionnaire for students and their parents, the sensitivity of asthma and allergy questionnaires was similar in proportion to the original questionnaire. The Turkish version of the questionnaire can be used for asthma and allergy screening in schools.