Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the etiology of indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage. This study investigated ascorbic acid (vitamin C)'s protective effects against oxidative gastric mucosal damage induced by indomethacin. Ascorbic acid is a powerful antioxidant because it can donate a hydrogen atom and form a relatively stable ascorbyl free radical. We have investigated alterations in the levels of myeloperoxidase, antioxidant system enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), lipid peroxidation and glutathione, as markers for ulceration process following oral administration of ascorbic acid, famotidine, lansoprazole, and ranitidine in rats with indomethacin-induced ulcers. In the present study, we found that (1) ascorbic acid, famotidine, lansoprazole and ranitidine reduced the development of indomethacin-induced gastric damages; (2) the administration of indomethacin caused a significant decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione, and an increase in the lipid peroxidation level; (3) the administration of ascorbic acid reversed the trend, inducing a significant increase of these enzymes' levels and a reduction in lipid peroxidation level in tissues; and (4) catalase, glutathione reductase and myeloperoxidase activities, increased by indomethacin, were found to be lower in the ascorbic acid, famotidine, lansoprazole and ranitidine-treated groups. The results indicate that the gastroprotective properties of ascorbic acid could be related to its positive effects on the antioxidant system and myeloperoxidase activity in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats.