The study aimed to determine the biological activities of 70% methanol extracts of nine Cladonia species from Turkey. The chemical composition was analyzed via spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques. DPPH center dot (1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+center dot (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities, inhibition of beta carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation, and cytotoxicity on A549 and COLO205 cell lines were studied. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on the Raw 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line by determining nitric oxide (NO) levels. Among the studied Cladonia species Cladonia firma was found the most active extract in ABTS+center dot test system (2.58 +/- 0.04 mmol/L/Trolox) and also in the cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory experiments. Cladonia pocillum, Cladonia rangiformis, and Cladonia foliaceae were also found to be active. Fumarprotocetraric acid amounts are between 1.89-23.82 mg gextract(-1) and fumarprotocetraric acid content did not show linearity with biological activities. It has been proved with this study that lichens traditionally used in treatment have as much biological activity as plants and can be evaluated in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.