Utilization of rock dust as cement replacement in cement composites: An alternative approach to sustainable mortar and concrete productions

Dobiszewska M., Bagcal O., Beycioğlu A., Goulias D., KÖKSAL F., Płomiński B., ...More

Journal of Building Engineering, vol.69, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 69
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jobe.2023.106180
  • Journal Name: Journal of Building Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Concrete, Concrete strength and durability, Mortar, Rock dust, Waste management
  • Yozgat Bozok University Affiliated: Yes


Production of concrete is consuming significant amounts of raw materials, high level of energy, and is heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This induces significant harmful impact on the environment. Scientific research is being conducted worldwide on the possibility of using different waste by-products in the production of concrete, particularly as a substitute for cement clinker. Rock dust of different geological origin can be considered as potential alternative material that can be used in cement composites production. However, there are some conflicting findings concerning the effect of rock dusts as partial cement replacement on the physical and mechanical properties and durability of cement composites as reported in the literature. Thus, a comprehensive assessment and analysis are needed to evaluate the value of rock dust application as cement replacement in concrete production. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the findings from scientific articles concerning the use of rock dust of different geological origins in mortar and concrete productions. The effect of rock dusts as partial cement substitution on cementitious composites properties were analyzed particularly on the cement hydration, the concrete and mortar mixture properties, mechanical properties and durability. The impact of rock dust is mainly related to the filler effect i.e., due to modification of particle size distribution, heterogenious nucleation, and cement dilution. This effect is more significant when cement is substituted with a rock dust of greater fineness than cement. Partial replacement of cement with up to about 10–15% of rock powder does not deteriorate cement composite properties. However higher substitution leads to reduction of mechanical properties and cement composite durability decline.