The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of inflammatory markers as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in neonatal calves with septicaemia. The study material consisted of 13 neonatal calves with septicaemia (septicaemic calves, SC) and ten healthy neonatal calves (control calves, CC). Blood samples were collected for biochemical, haematological and microbiological analyses. In addition, faecal samples were collected for microbiological and virological analyses. Three of neonatal calves with septicaemia were positive for E. coli (E. coli O157 serotype) by microbiological examination, but all neonatal calves with septicaemia were negative for rota- and coronaviruses. By haematological examination, there were no significant differences between SC and CC for white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil (NEU) counts (P > 0.05). NEU counts were higher on day 0 than on day 15 in SC (P < 0.05). Red blood cell (RBC) counts and packed cell volume (PCV) values were higher on day 0 in the SC than in the CC (P < 0.05). By biochemical analyses, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), haptoglobin (Hp), and fibrinogen (Fb) concentrations were higher on day 0 in the SC than in the CC (P < 0.05). After treatment (on day 15), the serum IL-6, PCT, Hp, and Fb concentrations were significantly decreased in the SC compared to the CC (P < 0.05). The serum iron (Fe) concentrations were lower on day 0 in the SC than in the CC (P < 0.05), and were higher on day 15 than on day 0 in the SC (P < 0.05). The study revealed that inflammatory markers could be used for determining the diagnosis and prognosis in neonatal calves with septicaemia.