Four different composite mixtures with varying amounts of expanded vermiculite were exposed to high temperatures of 300, 600, 900 and 1100 degrees C for 6 h. Physical and mechanical properties including unit weight, porosity, water absorption, residual compressive strength, residual splitting tensile strength and also ultrasonic pulse velocity were determined after air cooling. Microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Lightweight concrete with vermiculite shows a good performance at elevated temperatures. Expanded vermiculite is a significant lightweight aggregate for cementitious materials which are used for fire resistance applications. Concrete with vermiculite can be used as cement based refractory.