Highly sensitive metamaterial-based microwave sensor for the application of milk and dairy products

Abdulkarim Y. I., BAKIR M., Yaşar İ., ULUTAŞ H., Karaaslan M., Alkurt F. Ö., ...More

Applied Optics, vol.61, no.8, pp.1972-1981, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 61 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1364/ao.451900
  • Journal Name: Applied Optics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.1972-1981
  • Yozgat Bozok University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Optica Publishing Group.In this work, a novel, to the best of our knowledge, metamaterial-based microwave sensor is designed, numerically simulated, and experimentally tested for milk and dairy products in the frequency range of 8 to 9 GHz. The proposed structure is composed of copper split-ring resonators printed on Arlon Diclad 527 dielectric substrate. Reflection coefficient S11 was determined by using numerical simulation, and the structure was experimentally tested to validate the sensor at the X band frequency. The material under the test was placed in the sensor layer just behind the proposed structure, and the design was optimized to sense the change in the dielectric constant via resonance frequency shifts. The proposed study was not only used for fat contents and freshness checking of milk, it was also applied to other dairy products such as cheese, ayran, and yogurt. The maximum resonance frequency shift was observed in yogurt to be 140 MHz, and the minimum frequency shift was observed in fresh and spoiled ayran to be around 40 MHz. This work provides a new approach to the current metamaterial sensor studies existing in literature by having novel material applications with new microwave metamaterial sensors.