ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to evaluate the histopathological effects of septoplasty techniques on the nasal septal mucosa of rabbits with light and electron microscope.MethodsThe study was performed on 21 rabbits between August 2016 and February 2017. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. In Group-1, while preserving the L-strut structure of the septum, cartilage resection, was performed by open technique septoplasty. In Group-2, the same procedure was done except the resected cartilage was crushed and put back in place. No surgical procedure was performed on the Control group. Postoperative 2nd month; the specimens were histopathologically evaluated by light and electron microscope in terms of changes in the morphology of septum mucosa, perichondrial thickness, cilia and goblet cell deprivation, loss in glands, fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria.ResultsThe deprivation in cilia, goblet cells, serous gland and increase in the amount of collagen fibers were examined in both Group-1 and 2. The difference in Group-1 and Group-2 were statistically significant in terms of presence of cilia, number of goblet cells and glands and increase in collagen fibers when compared to control (p<0.001, p=0.002, p=0.020, p=0.002, respectively). In terms of perichondrium thickness, statistically significant difference was found between the Control and Group-2 (p<0.001).ConclusonIn this study, histopathological findings supported that the presence of cartilage in the septum is necessary to prevent the mucosal changes. Long-term studies are needed to observe whether changes in the morphology of epithelium and gland proceed more than 2 months follow-up.