Chloroquine attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced testicular damage via suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in experimental rat model


AKİN A. T. , KAYMAK E. , Ceylan T., Ozturk E., BAŞARAN K. E. , KARABULUT D., ...More

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, vol.49, pp.813-823, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 49
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/1440-1681.13669
  • Title of Journal : CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.813-823
  • Keywords: apoptosis, chloroquine, heat-shock proteins, hypoxia, male infertility, HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA, ACCLIMATIZATION, ALTITUDE, PROTEIN, HEAT-SHOCK-PROTEIN-70, INVOLVEMENT, EXPRESSION, MEDICINE, TORSION, HSP70

Abstract

Chronic hypoxia negatively affects male fertility by causing pathological changes in male reproductive system. However, underlying mechanisms of this damage are unknown. Chloroquine (CLQ) is an anti-inflammatory agent that is widely used in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of CLQ in the hypoxia-induced testicular damage via assessment of hypoxic response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 32 Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups as control (given 20%-21% O-2, no treatment), CLQ (given 50 mg/kg and 20%-21% O-2 for 28 days), hypoxia (HX) (given 10% O-2 for 28 days) and HX + CLQ (given 50 mg/kg and 10% O-2 for 28 days). After the experiment, blood samples and testicular tissues were taken. Histopathological evaluation was performed on testicular tissues and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1-alpha), heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP70, HSP90 and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) expression levels were detected via immunohistochemistry. Moreover, apoptotic cells were detected via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining and serum testosterone levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. Histopathological changes, apoptotic cell numbers and HIF1-alpha, HSP70, HSP90 and GADD153 expressions significantly increased in HX group (P < .05). Moreover, serum testosterone levels decreased in this group (P > .05). However, CLQ exerted a strong ameliorative effect on all parameters in HX + CLQ group. According to our results, we suggested that CLQ can be considered as an alternative protective agent for eliminating the negative effects of hypoxic conditions on male fertility.