Chromosomal data and karyological relationships provide valuable information about karyotype evolution and speciation. For the genus Bunium, the chromosomal data are limited. In the present study, the chromosomal data of 10 taxa are provided, 6 of which are given for the first time, 2 present new chromosome numbers, and 2 agree with previous reports. Four different chromosome numbers (2n=18, 20, 22 and 40) were detected, and 2n=40 is a new number in the genus Bunium. B. brachyactis is the first polyploid species of the genus with a ploidy level of 4x. The most asymmetric karyotypes are those of B. pinnatifolium and B. sayae. Regarding karyological relationships, B. pinnatifolium forms a monophyletic group by quite different karyological features such as large chromosomes, more submedian chromosomes and the most asymmetric karyotypes. In addition, the other 5 taxa form a strong monophyletic group. B. verruculosum and B. ferulaceum are cytotaxonomically very close species, as are B. sayae and B. elegans var. elegans. The chromosome numbers of 2 Turkish species, B. nudum and B. sivasicum, remain unknown. The presented results provide important contributions to the cytotaxonomy of Bunium.