Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an absorbable polylactic acid film barrier in preventing postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions, inflammation, and fibrosis in an animal model. Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into treatment and control groups. All rats underwent laparotomy with subsequent cecal wall abrasion and abdominal wall injury. The treatment group had a polylactic acid film barrier placed between the cecal and abdominal injured surfaces while control group received nothing. The animals were sacrificed on postoperative day 21. Three observers graded the intra-abdominal adhesions and resected specimens for histological examination of fibrosis and inflammation. Fibrosis, inflammation, and adhesions were graded using a quantitative scoring system. Results: The treatment group showed significantly less adhesions and inflammation (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the amount of fibrosis. Statistical correlations between adhesion-inflammation, adhesion-fibrosis, and inflammation-fibrosis were also significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Placement of polylactic acid film barriers between injured surfaces is associated with a significantly reduced rate of postoperative adhesions and inflammation. This may be a promising result for reducing the morbidity and costs related to postoperative adhesions. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.