Understanding the performance, emissions, and combustion behaviors of a DI diesel engine using alcohol/hemp seed oil biodiesel/diesel fuel ternary blends: Influence of long-chain alcohol type and concentration

Yilbaşi Z., Yeşilyurt M. K., Arslan M., Yaman H.

Science and Technology for Energy Transition (STET), vol.78, no.1, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier


In this study, it was aimed to examine the influences of biodiesel-diesel-higher alcohol (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-heptanol) blends on the performance, emission and combustion behaviors of a single-cylinder diesel engine. The tests were performed at a fixed speed of 1500 rpm and variable loads (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). For the tests, 80% diesel and 20% hemp seed oil biodiesel were blended and called as B20. Biodiesel fuel was produced by transesterification from hemp seed oil in the presence of methanol and potassium hydroxide for the preparation of B20 binary test fuel and other ternary fuels. Furthermore, nine ternary blend fuels [20% HSOB + 70%, 60% and 50% diesel, respectively + 10%, 20% and 30% higher alcohol (pentanol, hexanol and heptanol) respectively] were prepared. The calculations made with the experimental data revealed that the minimum brake specific energy consumption values were 12,48 MJ/kW h, 13,06 MJ/kW h, 13,27 MJ/kW h, 13,35 MJ/kW h, 13,47 MJ/kW h, and 13,59 MJ/kW h, respectively, for diesel fuel at full load, for fuels B20, B20Hx10, B20Hp10, B20Hx20 and B20Pe10, the maximum brake thermal efficiency values were obtained as 28.85%, 27.56%, 27.14%, 26.97%, 26.73% and 26.49%, respectively, for the same fuels at the same load. The increment in higher alcohol concentration in the blend delayed start of combustion and therefore the ignition delay period was prolonged. In the fuel line pressure data, changes were observed depending on the amount, viscosity and density of the fuel. Furthermore, B20Hx10 and B20Hp10 fuels gave the maximum in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, average gas temperature and pressure rise rate values after diesel and biodiesel. The addition of biodiesel and higher alcohol to diesel fuel resulted in a decrease in NOX, CO and unburned HC and smoke emissions and an increase in CO2. NOX, CO and unburned HC values of higher alcohol blended fuels at full load showed lower results, between 3.04-22.24%, 22.85-56.35% and 5.44-22.83%, respectively, compared to diesel fuel. It can be concluded that the use of hemp seed oil biodiesel and higher alcohol in the diesel engine will make a significant contribution to the reduction of NOX emissions.