JOURNAL OF TEKIRDAG AGRICULTURE FACULTY-TEKIRDAG ZIRAAT FAKULTESI DERGISI, vol.18, no.2, pp.303-311, 2021 (ESCI)
Iron (Fe) is a pivotal nutrient taking roles in respiration, photosynthesis and many plant metabolisms. Chlorosis caused by Fe deficiency generally occurs in high pH environments and many fruit trees including peach are known sensitive to iron starvation. Fe starvation declines leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, supresses plant growth and declines photosynthetic capacity. Iron deficiency induces responses in plants and different stomatal behaviors and physiological alterations occur to sustain the increased iron uptake capacity of Fe-deficient plants. In this study, the effects of iron deficiency on stomatal morphology and leaf physiological responses in peach variety Rich May grafted onto Garnem and GF 677 rootstocks were investigated. Plants were exposed to Fe deficient conditions for 3 months. End of the experiment, many leaf and stomatal properties were evaluated. The highest decrease in plant growth (relative growth rates of shoot diameter and length) induced by Fe deficiency was found in Rich May grafted onto Garnem. SPAD and relative anthocyanin decreased by 52 and 70% in Fe deficient Rich May/Garnem grafting combination. Decreases in SPAD and relative anthocyanin values were lower with GF 677. In GF 677, LRWC decreased by 1.8% and membrane permeability increased by 10%. Fe controlled stomatal behaviors in peach plants. Stomatal factors were found more sensitive to Fe deficiency in sensitive rootstock, Garnem. The increment in stomatal and pore areas leaded increase in stomatal conductance. The damage by Fe depletion was found higher in Garnem due to higher loss in SPAD, anthocyanin and increasing membrane permeability. Thus, GF 677 can be used in peach orchards under Fe deficiency conditions.