INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.41, no.7, pp.799-804, 2006 (SCI-Expanded)
In the study, antibacterial activities of the seed extracts of three different grapes were examined against fifteen bacteria, and total phenolic contents of the extracts were additionally determined. The contents of total phenolic compounds of the grape seed extracts were 589.09 (Hasandede), 506.60 (Emir) and 549.54 (Kalecik Karasi) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram with acetone:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5). These extracts at 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% concentrations were tested for their antibacterial effects by using the agar diffusion method against some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. All tested bacteria were inhibited by the grape seed extracts using agar well diffusion method. The most sensitive of the bacteria was A. hydrophila while Hasandede grape seed extract was the most inhibitive extract on test bacteria. Hasandede seed extract at 10% concentration gave the largest inhibition zone diameter (30.67 mm) against A. hydrophila. According to serial dilution method, while all the grape seed extracts at 0.5% and 1% concentrations had generally bacteriostatic activities against E. coli O157:H7, the same extracts appeared to have bactericidal effects at concentrations above 2.5%. In addition, the extracts at all concentrations had bactericidal activities against S. aureus at the end of 48 h. and A. hydrophila at the end of 1 h.